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Full text of "Poland Russia and Great Britain 1941-1945"

The Polish race has found itself between two mill-stones of extermination,
between Germany and Muscovy.    It must itself become a mill-stone or
else be grist for the mills of Germany and Muscovy .. . There is no choice .
.<. Words are futile.    . . . What faith to cling to? ... How to remain alive?
. . . Strengthen your valiant heart, is the reply.
(Zeromski, S." The Faithful River," 1913).
The ancient tradition of Poland, that country which, though invaded
many times, arose afresh amid the ruins and expelled the intruder, as in
1655, or endeavoured to overthrow him, as in 1794, 1831 and 1863, the
years when the Polish Republic was entirely flooded by foreign armies,
this ancient tradition clearly indicated the course which the Poles should
pursue in 1939. The State^must be preserved, that was their first task.
Although the President of the Republic and Government had been forced
to cross the frontier in order to retain the physical'possibility of carrying
out their duties in the free countries of the Allies, to pursue the policy of
Poland, and the day-to-day collaboration with the other Allied Govern-
ments, the organisation of the State inside the country itself had to
remain in existence. During the time of the Russo-German invasion,
the local authorities were dispersed, either by imprisonment or by
deportation, and new ones had to be established,
An Underground State was first organised in Poland in 1863, under the
Russian occupation, when the Poles created their own national authorities
with every organ attributing to a state. The population of that period
paid the taxes squeezed from them by the occupants and at the same
time voluntarily .paid into their own treasury as well.
During the Second Great War the Poles were the only nation in Europe
who, from 1939, adopted a rigid attitude towards the occupying Powers.
This meant that in no sphere of political or civil life had there been any
collaboration, or even a semblance of collaboration, with the invaders.
Both occupants ruled by fire and sword, but, while the Russians limited
their activities to just that, the Germans made many attempts to achieve
a degree of political understanding with the population, but every approach
proved unsuccessful. Any creation of a puppet Government in Poland,
similar to that which the Germans attempted in 1916, was impossible in
the atmosphere of 1939 and after. This attitude of the Polish people
under Russian and German occupation resulted in the creation of a
permanent state of martial law, and every Polish citizen became an
outlaw in his own country. On the other hand, the Polish Underground
did not recognise the rule of either occupants and, under the law of Poland,
held both responsible for their anti-Polish activities.
In the early days of October, 1939, immediately after the fall of Warsaw,